Week 3

There are two parts to this assignment. The first part is about correlation and regression analysis. The second part is about an independent samples t-test analysis.

Part I: Correlation and Regression Analysis

Please open the file name personality.sav. In this exercise, you will focus on the relationship of two variables, beckdep (measure of depression) and emcontot (measure of emotional control). These variables are from two instruments used in psychology, the Beck Depression Inventory, which is used to measure characteristics related to depression, and the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), which is used to measure subjective control of feelings of depression, anger, and anxiety in uncomfortable situations; this is a self-description instrument.

Imagine that you are interested in assessing the relationship between these two instruments, with the goal of using the emcontot scores as a predictor of the beckdep scores.

1. In SPSS, calculate the Pearson’s correlation between beckdep and emcontot.

a. What are the null and alternative hypotheses?

b. Present a scatterplot with beckdep scores in the Y-axis, and emcontot in the X-axis.

c. What type of relationship is depicted in the scatterplot, positive or negative?

d. Conduct the correlation analysis using the correlate menu in SPSS.

e. Report the results of the correlation analysis.

f. What was the amount of variance shared by the two variables?

g. What is your decision regarding the null hypothesis based on the results of the correlation analysis?

2. In SPSS, develop a regression model between the variables emcontot and beckdep.

a. Which of these variables is the dependent (predicted) variable?

b. Conduct the regression analysis using the regression menu in SPSS.

c. What is the mean and standard deviation for emcontot and beckdep?

d. What is the R-value? Is the value similar to the correlation coefficient conducted above? If so, why do you think it is similar?

e. What is the value of the R square? What does that value tell you about the amount of variance predicted by emcomtot on beckdep?

f. Was the model significant? How could you determine this?

g. Report the results of the regression in the APA format.

h. Develop the regression equation for the predicted variable

i. Using the Regression equation developed above, please estimate the Beck Depression Inventory score for an individual who scores 2.50 in the emcontot (CECS).

Part II: t – test Analysis

For Part II, you are now interested in examining differences in the Beck Depression Inventory score exist between individuals who are married and not married. In order to determine if differences exist, you will use the variable name marital as the independent variable and beckdep as the dependent variable.

Once you examine the variable marital, you realize that the variable included six different categories. Therefore, the variable needs to be recoded in two categories, single (including separated, divorce, or widowed) and married; because the independent samples t – test is used to compare differences between two groups.

In SPSS, conduct an independent samples t – test:

1. Conduct the independent samples t – test, including the assumptions tests.

2. There are three main assumptions needing to be satisfied before using the independent-samples t – test for testing differences between the genders. Use SPSS to generate the output needed to test the assumptions. Please discuss each one and explain whether each has been met using SPSS output as needed to include the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality (used when the sample size is less than 50), histograms, and the Levene’s test. Remember, if the population value is unknown, it is permissible to infer from sample values. Regardless of sample size, test whether these assumptions are met.

3. What are the null and alternative hypotheses?

4. What is the mean of the Beck Depression Inventory for the single and married groups?

5. What is the value of t?

6. What is the associated probability?

7. Report the results in APA format.

8. What might be concluded from this hypothetical study? (Hint: The decision about the null hypothesis.)

Length: Complete responses to all parts of all questions in both parts of the assignment. Please include the question prompts along with your responses in your assignment submission. In addition to a WORD (.doc) file with the answers to the assignment questions, also include the output (.spv) file. (NOTE: SPSS automatically generates the .spv file as you work in SPSS. When you close your SPSS main window, SPSS will ask you if you want to save the output file. Click ‘yes’, then save to your computer and upload with your assignment.)

References: No references are required, though any sources used other than those provided within the assignment should be cited and referenced in APA format.

**What you need to now about MLA, APA, HARVARD AND CHICAGO**

MLA (Modern Language Association) is a citation style used in the arts and humanities, such as literature, language, and cultural studies. In MLA style, in-text citations are used to give credit to sources and a Works Cited page is included at the end of the paper to list all sources. Example of an in-text citation in MLA style: (Smith 42). Example of a Works Cited entry in MLA style:

Smith, John. The Art of Literature. New York: Random House, 2018. Print. APA (American Psychological Association) is a citation style used in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and education. APA style uses in-text citations and a Reference page, which lists all sources used in the paper. Example of an in-text citation in APA style: (Smith, 2018). Example of a Reference page entry in APA style:

Smith, J. (2018). The science of psychology. New York, NY: Random House.

Harvard is a citation style used in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, primarily in the UK and other countries. In Harvard style, in-text citations are used to give credit to sources and a References page is included at the end of the paper to list all sources. Example of an in-text citation in Harvard style: (Smith, 2018). Example of a References page entry in Harvard style:

Smith, J. (2018) The Art of Literature. New York: Random House.

Chicago is a citation style used in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It is also known as “Turabian” after its manual of style. Chicago style uses in-text citations and either footnotes or endnotes, along with a Bibliography page. Example of a footnote in Chicago style: 1. John Smith, The Art of Literature (New York: Random House, 2018), 42. Example of a Bibliography page entry in Chicago style:

Smith, John. The Art of Literature. New York: Random House, 2018.

Each citation style has its own set of rules and guidelines, and it is important for students to use the correct citation style for their field of study. Proper use of citation styles not only gives credit to sources, but also helps to establish credibility and reliability in academic writing.

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