please answer 1 of the following 4 questions using the links and attached readings and power points
link 1: https://abcnews.go.com/International/russia-ukraine-war-ukrainians-fleeing-war-settle-canada/story?id=97255580
1. Think about types of capital, and consider the Rugel et al. reading on natural space in an urban area. How does improving natural spaces improve social capital and thus lessen distress?
2. Discuss what values and approaches maybe be used for a community psychologist when trying to assist the Ukrainian refugee community.
3. Discuss how participatory research works, and relate it to the readings such as Szaflarski’s article and Brown’s interview.
4. Think about the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility. Explain these concepts and relate them to modern times. Then discuss how a bystander intervention may help.
TYPES OF CAPITAL
This PowerPoint serves as a very basic introduction to the types of capital we often discuss in sociology. If you are familiar with the concepts, this will be review. If not, this is a basic introduction.
Our Education, training, knowledge
Adults bring human capital to the world of work
Economic theory states we invest in our human capital
Sociological theory would add that our structural position in society influences who can invest
Wealth and Income
Insurance and Type of Insurance
Social assets that a person holds
things and resources that signal to others that you are like them (or not)
These assets transfer to wealth and power
E.g.– signals could be clothes you wear, the way you speak, ability to participate with elite groups, brands of eyeglasses or tennis shoes, concerts you go to, etc.
Social relationships that exist that can then lead to outcomes
In a community, we want to know how those ties embedded in the community can be efficacious, that is, can they bring about change, bring in resources?
social norms, information channels, info exchange and networks, obligations/expectations/trust
Frequently studied in terms of neighborhoods, cities, educational system, child achievement, finding a job, etc.
SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGION AMONG HIV-INFECTED
Magdalena Szaflarski, Ph.D.
Departments of Sociology and Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Spirituality and religion are important to many people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent research
has focused on special populations (ethnic-minorities, women, and youth), spirituality/religion
measurement, mediating/moderating mechanisms, and individual and community-level
interventions. Spirituality/religion in PLWH has been refined as a multidimensional phenomenon
which improves health/quality of life directly and through mediating factors (healthy behaviors,
optimism, social support). Spirituality/religion helps people to cope with stressors, especially
stigma/discrimination. Spiritual interventions utilizing the power of prayer and meditation and
addressing spiritual struggle are under way. Faith-based community interventions have focused on
stigma and could improve individual outcomes through access to spiritual/social support and care/
treatment for PLWA. Community engagement is necessary to design/implement effective and
sustainable programs. Future efforts should focus on vulnerable populations; utilize state-of the art
methods (randomized clinical trials, community-based participatory research); and, address
population-specific interventions at individual and community levels. Clinical and policy
implications across geographic settings also need attention.
Spirituality; Religion; Religiosity; Faith; Religious organizations; Faith-based organizations; HIV;
AIDS; People Living with HIV; Outcomes; Well-being; Quality of life; Stress; Coping; Social
support; Spiritual support; Spiritual health; Spiritual well-being; Stigma
Spirituality and religion play an important role in people living with HIV (PLWH) [1–4].
Spirituality includes the internal, personal and emotional expression of the sacred and is
often assessed by spiritual well-being, peace/comfort derived from faith, and spiritual coping
[5, 6]. Religion has been defined as the formal, institutional, and outward expression of the
sacred, and has been measured by importance of religion, belief in God, religious
attendance, and prayer/meditation [7–9]. There is a growing body of knowledge about the
associations between spirituality/religion and outcomes among PLWH. In a seminal,
longitudinal study, spirituality/religion was found to increase after HIV diagnosis and predict
Contact information: Department of Sociology, HHB 460Q, 1720 2nd Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35294-1152, Phone: (205) 934-0825,
Fax: (205) 975-5614,
social exchange theory
Social Exchange Theory
Calculating the “rewards” or “costs” of actions made in a real or anticipated social situation and then acting accordingly
Example-before joining the track team, a student may weigh the rewards (better health, more friends) with the costs (lost free time, hard work)
Social Exchange Continued
A process of evaluating the costs and benefits that, in turn, determine how one behaves or chooses to act
People are more likely to act in a way that would result in lower psychological costs and/or higher rewards
Assumes people generally act in self-interest
This theory makes assumptions about human nature and the nature of human relationships.
Humans seek rewards and avoid punishments.
Humans are rational beings.
The standards that humans use to evaluate costs and rewards vary over time and from person to person.
Relationships are interdependent.
Relational life is a process.
Social Exchange theory expanded
Social Exchange theory has been expanded and criticized in depth.
The most basic version does not take into account power dynamics between actors in the relationship
Nor do they adequately take into account emotion
Not all actions are calculated and rational
A last note
I usually use the social exchange theory when I am interested in studying dyads, such as in marital relationships
e.g. how do partners share (or not share) housework
e.g. how does the depressive level of a caregiver affect the depressive levels of a care recipient in a relationship that requires a lot of “body work” i.e. when you must take care of another dependent body
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/envres
Exposure to natural space, sense of community belonging, and adverse
mental health outcomes across an urban region
Emily J. Rugela,?, Richard M. Carpianob,c,d, Sarah B. Hendersona,e, Michael Brauera
a School of Population & Public Health, 2206 E Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z9, Canada
b School of Public Policy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA 92521, USA
c Department of Sociology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA 92521, USA
d Center for Healthy Communities, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave., Riverside, CA 92521, USA
e British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655W 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada
A R T I C L E I N F O
Population mental health
A B S T R A C T
In a rapidly urbanizing world, identifying evidence-based strategies to support healthy design is essential.
Although urban living offers increased access to critical resources and can help to mitigate climate change,
densely populated neighborhood environments are often higher in many of the physical and psychological
stressors that are detrimental to health, and lower in the social capital that is beneficial to health. One com-
ponent of urban form that can reduce these stressors and improve social capital is nature: greenspace, such as
parks and street trees, and bluespace, such as rivers and oceans. In this project, we applied measures from a
Natural Space Index previously developed for the Vancouver, Canada census metropolitan area to explore the
relationship between distinct measures of natural space and prevalence of (1) major depressive disorder, (2)
negative mental health, and (3) psychological distress. In addition, we examined direct associations between
natural space exposure and neighborhood social capital, as measured via self-reported sense of community
belonging (SoC), as well as the potential mental health benefits of natural space mediated via SoC. Using data
from the population-based, cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (weighted
n= 1,930,048), we found no direct associations between any measure of natural space and mental health in
models adjusted for 11 demographic, socioeconomic, household arrangement, health, and urban design vari-
ables. However, publicly accessible neighborhood nature was associated with increased odds of higher SoC. A
1% increase in the percentage of natural space (combined greenspace and bluespace) within 500m had an odds
ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.05 [1.00, 1.10] for very strong vs. very weak SoC and 1.04 [1.01, 1.08] for
somewhat strong vs. very weak SoC. In addition, higher levels of SoC were associated with impr
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